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Interdigital furunculosis in dogs causes

An abscess, or localized infection of the skin, between the toes is also called an interdigital furuncle. It is similar to a severely infected pimple or boil on the face. These painful, pus-filled blisters often occur in the webbing between a dog's toes. The most common cause of furuncles between the toes is a deep bacterial infection Interdigital folliculitis and furunculosis is a descriptive term for an initially sterile inflammatory response to foreign material introduced to the deeper layers of skin by ruptured hair follicles (often from frictional trauma in short coated breeds) that results in large bumps or nodules between a dogs toes There are many factors that may contribute to the development of interdigital furuncles. The most common cause is an underlying skin infection. However, allergies, mites, ingrown hairs, excessive paw licking, and poor foot conformation can also cause these lumps and bumps

Interdigital furunculosis can be caused by a bacterial infection and also due of the presence of short bristly hairs on the webbing between the pet's toes. These hairs are often forced into hair follicles when the dog walks. This can cause inflammation and secondary bacterial infections. Other Causes of Furunculosis Interdigital 'Cysts' (Pododermatitis) Interdigital 'cysts' are a common, recurrent and painful problem in many dogs. Treating the secondary infections will often result in only a short to medium term resolution. Recurrence is very likely unless the primary cause is detected & treated

Interdigital 'cyst' are a common, recurrent problem in many dogs. Treating the secondary infections will often result in only a short to medium term resolution. Recurrence is very likely unless the primary cause is detected & treated. The paw(s) may be inflamed only, or inflamed and infected with any combination of microbes (bacteria &/or yeasts), and/or with parasites The most common interdigital cyst/furuncle breeds affected include Labs, Bulldogs, other short-haired or allergy prone canines, and overweight/obese dogs. But, truth be told, any pet can get one of these interdigital cysts/furuncles. For example, my colleague is currently treating a two year old German Shepherd One hypothesis regarding the cause of interdigital cysts is that the hair around the toes fractures because of the surface that the dog walks, and these fractured hairs lead to inflammation that causes cysts to form. Interdigital Cysts: Treatment Option All dogs had recurrent lameness, pain and nodules, or draining sinuses in the dorsal interdigital skin, had failed to respond to antibiotic therapy, and were negative for Demodex mites and dermatophytes. Clinical features in the interdigital skin on the plantar aspect of the feet included alopecia, callus-like thickening, and comedones

Abscesses Between the Toes (Interdigital Furunculosis) in Dog

The last several months my dog has been suffering from regular episodes of what I think are interdigital furuncles (?) based on my research. Before I knew about interdigital furuncles, I took him to my vet at that time, and the vet suspected that there may be something foreign inside the paw, and he opened up the abscess but could find nothing Interdigital furunculosis can have many causes, and the treatment will vary depending on what the cause of the cysts is. Only your vet can diagnose the cause of the cysts and prescribe the correct treatment. I recommend calling your vet to schedule an appointment. The correct treatment will likely involve . Caring for the wounds in your dog's paw The fungus normally enters the body from inhalation from the spores. Dogs also can get blastomycosis through contact, but this is rare. From there, the fungus spreads around the body and can cause skin or paw lesions. Breed type pre-disposition is very important with this condition

Interdigital Folliculitis and Furunculosis (Interdigital

  1. Interdigital cysts are large bumps, or nodules, between a dog's toes. Clostridium perfringens Causes Diarrhea in Dogs . Coccidia Infects Intestines of Cats and Dogs. Muzzle Folliculitis and Furunculosis (Chin Acne, Muzzle Acne) in Dogs. Myasthenia Gravis in Dogs and Cats
  2. The most common causes of dog folliculitis are skin diseases. Skin diseases are created by an overreactive immune system response to allergies or specific infectious or environmental agents. As..
  3. Pododermatitis or interdigital cysts, which are filled with fluid, are related to the bristly hair between the toe pads and are believed to be caused by the hair keratin being forcefully pushed into the skin by the movement of the dog, by walking on graveled and rough terrain or by injury to the webbing between the toes

Interdigital furunculosis : in breeds of short and hard hair, such as the English bulldog, the continuous trauma caused by these hairs causes tend towards the interior of the follicle, breaking and releasing keratin.This causes inflammation and secondary infection By David D. Duclos, DVM, Dipl. ACVD Originally published in Veterinary Practice News, March 2013 - Download as a PDF. Introduction. Interdigital pododermatitis in dogs has many causes, [1- 4] one of which is follicular cysts that repeatedly rupture and cause draining hemorrhagic tracts in the interdigital spaces of dogs.. The clinical lesions include erythema, edema, nodules, hemorrhagic. OK, that sounds like a scary medical term, so what exactly are interdigital cysts? In actual fact, the correct term for this problem is Interdigital Furunculosis and you may hear it referred to that way but generally speaking the word cyst is used instead.. If we break the term down into its component parts, we have inter (meaning between), digital (meaning toes or fingers) and cysts being a. Another name for it is an interdigital furuncle. Some breeds appear to be more disposed to this that others. But the cause can be from a variety of factors. Being on the foot, the first cause could be from something the dog walked on, such as a splinter or a sharp stone Interdigital furunculosis may be caused by: Bacterial infection as well as short hairs in the webbing of your dog's toes that become forced into hair follicles upon his walking, causing inflammation and secondary bacterial infection Material that gets into your dog's paws may then be implanted in the ski

Diagnosis and treatment of demodicosis in dogs and catsMy Dog Has A Hole In Her Paw - A Pictures Of Hole 2018

Interdigital Cysts: How to Heal a Furuncle Natural Dog

The Causes One of the most common causes of dogs developing interdigital furuncles is because they have developed some sort of bacterial infection that's deeply embedded in the tissue found in between their toes. It could be that a foreign object has lodged itself in the tissue and this has then become infected 3. The interdigital pyoderma complex . There are very numerous causes of non infectious pododermatitis with erythema, oedema, oozing and alopecia. The same lesions are present in interdigital pyoderma along with furunculosis, ulcerations, fistulae and necrosis (cellulitis). Interdigital pyoderma is often secondary. Pseudo-pyoderma . 1

Furunculosis in Dogs - VetInf

  1. Often referred to as 'interdigital cysts' but are actually interdigital pyoderma NOT cysts. Cause:Staphylococcus intermediusmay be secondary to immunosuppression. Signs: pyoderma frequently affects feet and may be only body area involved. Nodules with or without fistulous tracts result
  2. Chronic pododermatitis with interdigital furunculosis is a common and frustrating problem in dogs. It is characterised by the presence of recurrent interdigital furunculosis. It is a multifactorial condition with primary, predisposing and perpetuating causes that lead to the secondary infections
  3. Dogs get interdigital cysts from enlarged, plugged hair follicles. Those can result from any injury or inflammation of the skin in the area. The nodules form and then rupture, and that results in even more irritation to the area. Some of the factors that can lead to interdigital cysts include
  4. Lick Granuloma. Lick granuloma (focal furunculosis) is a common, stubborn skin disease that is directly caused by the dog licking an area of the body, usually the lower leg. Lick granulomas may be mistaken for growths or granulomas formed around imbedded foreign objects. Causes include: Atopy. Food Allergy. Non-healing Wounds. Underlying Cancer
  5. Learn about the veterinary topic of Abscesses Between the Toes (Interdigital Furunculosis) in Dogs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the MSD Vet Manual

Cysts on dogs are common and can be formed on the surface of the skin or on the inside of the body. Dogs that are prone to Interdigital Furuncle/Cysts are: • Bulldogs. • Labs. • Short-haired or allergy prone canines. • Overweight/obese dogs. • Any pet can get one of these Interdigital Furuncles/Cysts. Some of the first signs that your. This study documents the presence of comedones and follicular cysts of palmar and plantar interdigital skin as an underlying cause of recurrent dermatitis, and describes the use of a carbon dioxide laser to surgically remove lesions. The 28 dogs included in the study had: (i) recurrent lameness, pai Fifteen dogs had skin samples collected for histopathology. Clinical features in ventral interdigital skin included alopecia, callus-like thickening, and comedones. Histological features included hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, comedones and follicular cysts, furunculosis, draining sinuses, and scarring A major culprit is a condition known as interdigital furunculosis or abscesses (localized infection of the skin) between the toes. This shows up as a painful blister filled with pus, affects the webbing between a dog's toes and is caused by a deep bacterial infection. Several dog breeds are susceptible to this type of bacterial infection Interdigital pyoderma and pododermatitis. Question: Dear Dr. Richards: I have an 11-year-old shelty named Ben, whom the family love very much. He has a lesion on his right forepaw that seems to fit the description of interdigital pyoderma that you mentioned in a web-posted article involving a dog named Angie

There are numerous home remedies to treat interdigital cysts. Below is a list of the best home treatments you can start doing today in order to minimize the pain for your dog: Soaking the dog's paw in Epsom salts twice a day. Shampooing and cleaning the paw at once a day. Apply a Sooting Balm twice a day. Put the dog on a diet to lower his. Furunculosis is the result of allergy, so for the long term, if you can get over this issue, the underlying allergy must be addressed tp prevent recurrence. First, let's discuss symptmomatic therapy. If dog is licking the paw with the cyst, this must be stopped first and foremost. All the treatment in the world will never work if the dog keeps. The 28 dogs included in the study had: (i) recurrent lameness, pain, and nodules, or draining sinuses in the dorsal interdigital skin, (ii) failed to respond to antibiotic therapy, and (iii) were.

Interdigital Furunculosis. Interdigital furunculosis is a condition where the hair follicle is inflamed or damaged, causing bumps to form on dog paws. The most common cause is is follicular inflammation. As hair follicles fill with bacteria, demodex mites, and fungi, they become inflamed lay term: Interdigital Cysts. This is one of the most frustrating conditions seen in the veterinary dermatology practice. What causes it? We see this condition as a structural/functional problem with dogs who have a limb deformity; for example, bulldogs with bow legs. In Texas, we most commonly see these lesions secondary to atopic dermatitis. Lesions most often involve the trunk, pressure points (callus pyoderma, Figure 1), chin, nose and feet (interdigital pyoderma, Figures 2 and 3). Post-grooming furunculosis, frequently involving Pseudomonas spp., is a newly recognised deep pyoderma that develops within a few days of shampooing and grooming

Interdigital 'Cysts' (Pododermatitis) - The Skin Ve

  1. ent interdigital webbing, or both
  2. Interdigital cysts are common in some breeds of dog . They are soft to firm fluid-filled swellings that form in the web of skin between the toes. They sometimes rupture and discharge fluid or pus, and sometimes open sinus tracts form
  3. ent interdigital webbing, or both
  4. Typical breeds for developing interdigital furunculosis are Giant breeds such as St Bernards, and Great Danes or the bull breeds, particularly English Bulldogs and English Bull Terriers, The bull breeds are also prone to developing atopy, which can be a primary cause of causing pedal inflammation
  5. Chronic pododermatitis with interdigital furunculosis is a common and frustrating problem in dogs. It is characterised by the presence of recurrent interdigital furunculosis

Chronic interdigital furunculosis or pododermatitis (Figure 1) is a common and frustrating problem with multiple trigger factors. It is very important to manage the underlying causes to reduce or prevent chronic changes. Chronic changes such as hyperplasia or new pad formation make long-term control much harder and more complicated. Causes Interdigital cysts are a series of inflamed and often infected tissue between your dog's toes. They are commonly found on the front paws and can be a result of many different skin conditions. These can range from mites to ingrown hairs to allergies

Interdigital cysts and their God-forsaken therapies PetM

Chronic interdigital furunculosis or pododermatitis (Figure 1) is a common and frustrating problem with multiple trigger factors. It is very important to manage the underlying causes to reduce or prevent chronic changes. Chronic changes such as hyperplasia or new pad formation make long-term control much harder and more complicated. CAUSES Canine eosinophilic furunculosis is an uncommon condition often considered similar to eosinophilic granuloma.Although the cause is not certain, it is believed to develop due to an acute allergic reaction; primarily to bites from venomous insects or arachnids e.g. bees or spiders, although a reaction to medication is possible (Mauldin et al. 2006).. Almost all skin diseases can eventually cause folliculitis. However, the most common folliculitis-causing skin diseases are: fungal infections, presence of external parasites (particularly fleas), callus dermatitis, acral lick granuloma, canine acne, allergies, interdigital cysts, skin fold pyoderma and idiopathic furunculosis (in German Shepherds)

Interdigital pododermatitis in dogs has many caus-es1-4, one of which is follicular cysts that repeatedly rupture and cause draining hemorrhagic tracts in the interdigital spaces of dogs. The clinical lesions include erythema, edema, nod-ules, hemorrhagic bulla (Figure 1), hemorrhagic drain-ing tracts (Figure 2), ulcers and scarring (Figure 3) Abscesses in dogs are pockets of pus somewhere in the body, commonly including the skin, mouth, between the toes, or within the body cavity. There are many types of abscesses in dogs, and they can. Interdigital cysts are large bumps, or nodules, between a dog's toes Skin disorders causing bacterial folliculitis in dogs include: canine acne, acral lick granuloma, skin fold pyoderma, interdigital pododermatitis (interdigital cysts), idiopathic furunculosis of German Shepherd Dogs, pyotraumatic folliculitis, and callus dermatitis, among. The most common causes of recurrent bacterial pyoderma include failure to treat underlying causes, use of glucocorticoid drugs, and inappropriate treatment with prescribed antibiotic medications. Abscesses Between the Toes (Interdigital Furunculosis) in Dogs. Dermatophilosis in Dogs. Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex in Dogs. Fleas of Dogs.

Dogs that lick or chew at their paws can cause hair and skin irritation that lead to interdigital cysts. In these dogs, diagnosing and managing the underlying cause of itching, such as allergies , is part of treating and preventing interdigital cysts German Shepherd Dog (Alsatian) Anal Furunculosis. Related terms: Perianal fistula. Outline: German Shepherd dogs are predisposed to anal furunculosis, a condition in which there is inflammation and ulceration of the skin under the tail and around the anus, which can become severe with deep infection of underlying tissues.It is a chronic condition which is difficult to treat and which can cause. The bridge of the muzzle, chin, elbows, hocks, interdigital areas, and lateral stifles are more prone to deep infections, but any area may be involved. Acral lick granulomas and areas of pyotraumatic dermatitis are also clinical manifestations of deep pyoderma. Interdigital furunculosis is another manifestation of deep pyoderma There's another type of abscess that can affect your dog's paws. Called an interdigital furuncle, these abscesses are like a severely infected pimple or boil, states Merck Veterinary Manual. A deep bacterial infection most often causes this dog paw infection between the toes Unfortunately, most of the contributing factors for pododermatitis are genetic in nature and caused by irresponsible breeding. In addition, overweight English bulldogs and bulldogs with spread out toes are more likely to have interdigital furunculosis. Other Causes And Treatments. Interdigital cysts are also common among members of the bulldog.

Video: Treatment Options for Dog's Foot Sores - Veterinary

Dogs Health: Interdigital Pyoderma in Dog . 3. The interdigital pyoderma complex . There are very numerous causes of non infectious pododermatitis with erythema, oedema, oozing and alopecia. The same lesions are present in interdigital pyoderma along with furunculosis, ulcerations, fistulae and necrosis (cellulitis) dogs tend to be large breed, short-coated dogs, with Labradors, retrievers and English bulldogs apparently over-represented. It looks just like photos of a interdigital cyst. But first, let†s examine what it is. Fortunately Skin Cysts in Dogs Ralph was a bright-eyed, floppy-eared German Shepherd. We see this condition as a structural/functional problem with dogs who have a limb deformity. Your dog's folliculitis may be caused by the following conditions: Canine acne. Skin-fold pyoderma. Interdigital pododermatitis, or cysts. Idiopathic furunculosis (in German shepherds) Pyotraumatic folliculitis, or hot spot. Callus dermatitis. External parasites, such as fleas, ticks, mange mites, ear mites, and flies. Allergies

Interdigital Follicular Cyst on Dogs. Conventional treatment for interdigital cysts in dogs Paw cysts in dogs are called interdigital furuncles. Interdigital cysts are large bumps, or nodules, between a dog's toes. Dogs may limp from the pain, especially when walking They can be mild or cause the dog pain on walking. Kennel Cough in Dogs Furunculosis is a deep infection of the skin, in which the hair follicles become infected and furuncles form on the skin. The most common cause that leads to the appearance of this skin condition is the infection with the bacteria staphylococcus aureus.The staph bacteria is commonly found on the skin but it can breach the skin through an open wound or it can be transmitted from someone else. Interdigital cysts in dogs ( a lump between the toes) Another common problem that arises in the interdigital area are interdigital cysts. These are also called interdigital folliculitis or furunculosis. This is an infection and inflammation of the haired skin between the toes that causes a swollen cyst to develop

Skin: deep pyoderma in dogs | Vetlexicon Canis from

Hyperpigmentation is a darkening and thickening of the skin seen in dogs. It is not a specific disease but a reaction of a dog's body to certain conditions. Hyperpigmentation appears as light-brown-to-black, velvety, rough areas of thickened, often hairless skin. The usual sites are in the legs and groin area. It can be primary or secondary Itching (Pruritus) in Dogs. Pruritus is defined as an unpleasant sensation within the skin that provokes the desire to scratch. Itching is a sign, not a diagnosis or specific disease. The most common causes of itching are parasites, infections, and allergies. There are many skin diseases that do not initially cause itching Post-grooming furunculosis is a deep skin infection that occurs rather quickly, usually on the back of dogs (where grooming products are commonly placed). The infection is often due to an organism, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, that is associated with water environments Interdigital folliculitis and furunculosis ( IFF ) is a common, recurrent problem interdigital cysts in dogs home treatment! The primary cause is detected & treated solution for cysts spring water and dietary changes trial..

Management of chronic interdigital dermatitis Veterinary

In addition, English bulldogs with splay feet, or spread out toes, are more likely to have interdigital furunculosis. Finally, obese dogs and dogs with allergies have a higher risk for developing interdigital cysts. Interdigital furunculosis starts when short shafts of hairs are forced back into their hair follicles as your bully moves Interdigital cysts are large bumps, or nodules, between a dog's toes. Interdigital cysts usually appear as red nodules filled with blood and/or pus. They are most commonly found on the front paws. Dogs may limp from the pain, especially when walking on uneven surfaces, or lick or chew at their paws

Interdigital cysts, also known as podo furunculosis, follicular pododermatitis, or interdigital furuncles, refer to small or large lumps in the webbing between the dog's toes. The cyst may be filled with pus or blood. One or more nodules may be present and they are usually found in the dog's front paws. Causes of Interdigital Cysts in Dogs Canine anal furunculosis is a chronic, painful, pro­ gressive inflammatory and ulcerative disease suspected to be immunomediated (Patterson and Campbell 2005). Moreover, the general histopathological examination, including interdigital lesions, corresponds to interface dermatitis. These histological features are characterize

Dog Treatment and Prevention of Suspected Interdigital

forepaws of younger dogs with or without obvious con-formational abnormalities. The lesions begin ventrally as a follicular cyst, and progress to form a draining tract dor-sally. Laser ablation of the cysts is an effective long-term solution with a success rate of approximately 70%.1 Medical therapy of interdigital furunculosis (J.C. Angus Causes. The most common cause is a deep bacterial infection. Chronic, recurrent interdigital furunculosis is most often caused by inappropriate antibiotic therapy, concurrent corticosteroid administration, demodicosis, an anatomic predisposition, or a foreign body's reaction to keratin. Diagnosis. The diagnosis is often based on clinical. My pit bull mix has suffered from interdigital furunculosis for the last six months. Has seen out vet twice and was treated with steroids and anitbiotics for 10 days each time. He had positive results while on the treatment but within 3 days the problem was returning Etiology: The most common cause is a deep bacterial infection. Many breeds (eg, Shar Pei, Labrador Retriever, English Bulldog) are predisposed to bacterial interdigital furunculosis because of the short bristly hairs located on the webbing between the toes, prominent interdigital webbing, or both by lioness9918 on 08 August 2006 - 22:08. PYO= pus DERMA= skin INTERDIGITAL= between the digits (toes) FURUNCULE= basically a boil -OSIS= condition Interdigital furuncles, often incorrectly referred to as interdigital cysts, are painful nodular lesions located in the interdigital webs of dogs. Histologically, these lesions represent areas of.

focal, or localized, furunculosis or generalized furunculo-sis and/or cellulitis. Furunculosis is caused by bacterial in-fection that affects the hair follicles and causes small ab-scesses under the skin. • Localized forms of furunculosis occur on chins of short-coated dogs (eg, English and French bulldogs Chronic, recurrent interdigital furunculosis is most often caused by inappropriate antibiotic therapy (too short a course, wrong dosage, wrong drug), concurrent corticosteroid administration, demodicosis, an anatomic predisposition, or a foreign body reaction to keratin Just noticed some Interdigital Furunculosis on my girl, I have cleaned it up. Wondering if Johnson's tea tree skin cream is ok to sooth it for her Interdigital draining (fistulous) tracts, often called interdigital cysts, have been considered one of the most frustrating conditions to manage in veterinary dermatology.There are three main causes of interdigital draining lesions, from most common to least common: 1) Interdigital follicular cysts, 2) Foreign body reactions, and 3) Folliculitis and furunculosis from other causes Muzzle and chin folliculitis -- furunculosis -- is often erroneously referred to as canine acne. A form of pustules is generally seen in young dogs; however, mature dogs which exhibit symptoms of pustular pimples are usually afflicted with a chronic condition. Generalized deep pyoderma is a very severe disease involving the entire body

medicines - How can I help my dog's furuncles? - Pets

  1. Pododermatitis (Interdigital Dermatitis) is the inflammation of the interdigital skin; the area of skin in between the toes and footpads. Pododermatitis is a very common canine skin condition that may also affect the nail. Pododermatitis Average Cost. From 443 quotes ranging from $300 - $800. Average Cost
  2. Clostridium perfringens Causes Diarrhea in Dogs . Coccidia Infects Intestines of Cats and Dogs. Interdigital Cysts in Dogs. Intervertebral Disk Disease (IVDD) in Dogs. Muzzle Folliculitis and Furunculosis (Chin Acne, Muzzle Acne) in Dogs
  3. Furunculosis in dogs with deep pyoderma is clinically characterised by papular-nodular lesions that are mostly detectable on the chin, on the limbs and among the interdigital areas, especially in shorthaired breeds (Figs. 3.17, 3.18, and 3.19) (Miller et al. 2013). Many nodular papules fistulise on the skin surface, where a purulent exudate.
  4. Interdigital cysts occur quite commonly in dogs. They are the development of cysts between their toes. A cyst is a thin walled sac normally filled with fluid. They can be mild or cause the dog pain on walking. You may notice that your dog is constantly licking his paws, as they obviously cause discomfort. Often the cause is the ingress of a.
  5. Lymphadenopathy of peripheral nodes was noted in all groups, increasing in frequency with increased dose, and was frequently associated with interdigital furunculosis. Papilloma was considered treatment related, but not dose related

Dog Paw Inflammation: More Important Than You Know Hemope

  1. Malassezia is not considered a common pathogen in cats. The yeast dermatitis in cats is characterized by seborrhea oleosa, erythema, hypotrichosis, and the accumulation of greasy, adherent, brownish scales (Fig. 6). Sphynx and Devon Rex appear predisposed to Malassezia carriage, and often have a greasy exudate on the claws and in the claw folds
  2. This is an archive of all the English Bulldog News Photo Contest Winners from the year 2010. Our next contest is going on RIGHT NOW on English Bulldog News, so stop by and enter your bulldog photo today
  3. They can also be called interdigital furuncles, follicular pododermatitis, or podofurunculosis. Dogs with shorter, coarser hair coats like English bulldogs, Great Danes, Chinese shar peis, basset hounds, mastiffs, and boxers are more likely to have inflamed follicles. Interdigital cysts Q: Dear Dr. Mike, I hope you can shed some light on this problem and perhaps have a few recommendations on.
Growth On Dog Paw - petfinder

In dogs, muzzle folliculitis and furunculosis is more prevalent in puppies approaching maturity (Figure 5). However, in cats, this condition known as 'feline acne', may occur at any age. In dogs, mild cases self-cure, but furunculosis and cellulitis require both topical and systemic therapy Demodicosis may be a primary cause of interdigital furunculosis. Canine atopy is also a common cause of recurrent interdigital furunculosis. Histiocytomas A histiocytoma is a benign skin tumor, generally seen in young dogs, that often spontaneously goes away without treatment within 2-3 months Pathogenesis of canine interdigital palmar and plantar comedones and follicular cysts, and their response to laser surgery. Vet Derm 2008; 19(3):134-141. 4. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK. Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat, Clinical and Histopathologic Diagnosis, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2005, pp 427-429. 5

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